A wind-wave interaction explanation for Jelesniankski's open-ocean storm surge estimation using Hurricane Georges' (1998) measurements
S. A. Hsu
On 28 September 1998, Hurricane Georges made its final landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi with maximum one-minute sustained surface winds of 46 m s-1 (90kt) and a minimum central pressure of 960 hPa. The measured peak storm surge was approximately 3 m (10ft) at Pascagoula, Mississippi. Using Jelesnianski's nomograph for open-ocean surge along with adjustments for shoaling factor and storm motion, the peak surge on the coast is estimated to be 10 ft, in excellent agreement with the measurement. It is shown that Jelesnianski's open-ocean peak-surge nomograph can be further substantiated by the recent advance in wind-wave-surge interaction studies using the data from a buoy located near Hurricane Georges' track. For rapid estimation of the surge before shoaling, an analytical formula incorporating both the wind-stress tide and the barometric tide is also provided for operational use.